A little history…
The viticulture and the vinification are practices that can be dated back to 7000 years ago, but it is commonly thought that the crib of the viticulture was a region of the Caucasus, although several proofs evidence traces of culture of the vine also in the Easter world.
Starting from the ‘60s in Italy, with the Green Revolution, some viticulture decided to adopt the techniques of cultivation, caring about the protection of the plants regardless the products of chemical substances. This moment highlights the beginning of the modern ecologic viticulture.
Since 1991, a new common regulation for the production of grapes has been created at a European level, but since 2012 there is a European code that concerns the management of the winery and the biologic vinification.
Which are the characteristics of the biological wine?
With the word “biological wine” we talk about a product obtained by the cultivation of grapes with biological methods. It is extremely difficult that a wine itself is bio, as some substances (as for instance the sulphites) are allowed anyway.
In the last year, in Italy, the necessity of a sustainable agriculture and the practice of the cultural biological methods, based on the will to avoid chemical products both on the soil and on the fruits.
The same principle can be applied on the viticulture, that pay attention to the safeguard of the natural equilibrium of the vineyard and the surrounding environment, aimed to keep the soil fertile through the promotion of biological natural process and closed systems.
Natural, bio and biodynamic wine
After having discovered the characteristics of the biological wine, it is time to talk about natural and biodynamic wine.
Natural wine is characterized by the fact that no substances are added to the must, nor sulphurous dioxide, nor acids or other corrective agents.
Biodynamic wine comes from grapes produced according to the biodynamic method, stated in the ‘20s by the Austrian Rudolf Steiner.
The three essential principles of the biodynamic cultivation are:
– Maintenance of the soil fertility;
– Enhancement of the resistance of the land to parasites and illness;
How to recognize a “biological” wine?
The consumer that wants to choose a biological product has to read the label: if in the label “product of biological agriculture” is written and there are the certification of the specific institution (Amab, Aiab, Imc), it will be a bio wine.
On the other side, instead, if the wine is biodynamic, the institution Demeter gives a certification with the lettering “product of biodynamic agriculture”.
You need to pay attention thus, when you make your choice.